I get something which might be a little bit similar but way not as extreme as yours sounds like- and yep it can but doesnt always happen, when temperature suddenly changes to colder (draught/going from warm to colder room/sun disappearing behind clouds etc) but also sometimes when I'm 'slowly' going too cold
mine feels like as if spasm is running lightning fast from one muscle group to the next in split seconds-totally contracting muscles, contorting every bit in turn, making limbs fly off somewhat- and the way it runs over my back and into neck makes me feel as if my spine is being wildly contorted and at each contortion frozen like that for a split second at v odd angles-the back/neck bit actually hurts- my jaw/mouth tends to sort of clamp shut but then usually a high pitched shuddery squealy sound comes out-
friends actually tend to laugh when they see and hear it- but I dont mind in my case cause I have never really injured myself, apart from a wee bit of muscle strain or a mild sublux nothing has happened, there are no after effects and it really is a v v v brief thing, I reckon the whole thing has come and gone in less than a second or two
I always thought that was what in the old days got referred to as a shudder due to "someone walking over your grave" and that it was a common thing- but actually... none of my friends get/do this like me, the only one I know that does is my mum
but... I have no idea if this is like yours just milder, if it is something normal/common or why this might happen... sorry!